What Is *Data Communication*

      
 
It is the transfer of data or information between source and receiver. The source transmits the data and the receiver receives it data communication involve the following like communication network different communication services required. The kind of networks available protocols architecture, OSI models, TCP\IP protocol models, etc.
The purpose of data communication is to provide the rules and regulations that allows computers with different disk operating system languages. Cabling and location to share resources. The rules and regulations are called protocols.
*Characteristics of Data Communication.
      Delivery: Data must be delivered to the correct destination by the system. Data must be received by the device or user and not only by the device or user.
      Accuracy: the system must deliver data accurately. If the data have been altered in transmission and left uncorrected or unusable.
      Timelines: the system must deliver data in a timely manner. If data delivered late are useless. And In the case of video, audio and voice timely delivery of data means delivering data as they are produced.
*DATA Transmission Components.
The transmitter sends the message and receiver receives the message the medium is the channel over which the message is sent and the protocol is the set of rules that guide how the data is transmitted from encoding and decoding.
      Transmitter: it is a device that sends the message it can be the computer, workstation, telephone, video camera, etc.
      Receiver: it is a device that receives the message it can also be the computer, workstation, telephone, etc.
      Medium: the transfer medium is a physical part by which a message travels from the sender to the receiver. It can consist of a twisted pair wire coaxial cable. Fiber optic cable laser or radio waves, etc.
      Message: The message is the transmission to be communicated. It can consist of text, number, pictures, sound or video.
      Protocol: it is a set of rules that govern data communication it represents an agreement between the communicating devices without a protocol 2 devices may be connected but not communicating.
*Basic communication models:
Sources transmitter transmission system receiver destination.
      Source: Data to be transmitted is generated by this device.
      Transmitter: The data generated by the source system are not directly transmitted in the form they are generated. The transmitter transforms and encodes the information in such a form to produce electromagnetic waves or signals.
      Transmission system: a transmission system can be a single transmission line or complex network connecting source or destination.
      Receiver: it receives the signal from the transmission system and converts it to a form which is easily managed by a destination device.
      Destination: it receives the incoming data from the receiver.

*Data Representation.
      Text: In data communication text is represented as a bit pattern and sequence of bits. Different sets of bit pattern have been designed to represent text symbols. Each set is called code and the process of representing symbols is called coding.
      Numbers: are also represented by bit patterns.
      Images: are also represented by bit pattern an image is composed of a matrix of pixels where each pixel is a small dot. The size of pixels depending on the resolution.
      Audio: It refers to the recording and broadcasting of sound or music. It’s a continuous signal not discrete when we use a microphone to change voice or music to an electric signal we create a continuous signal.
      Video: It refers to the recording or broadcasting of picture or movie. Video can also be produced as a continuous entity. Eg: by a TV camera or it can be a combination of images like a discrete entity arranged to convey the idea of motion.


*Communication Mode.
      Simplex:                                 -----à--------                       
Transmission is only one direction

In simplex mode, the communication can take place in only one direction. The receiver receives the signal from the device. In this mode, the flow of information is only in one direction.

      Half Duplex:                       
---à-----ß---                      
    Transmission in either direction but not simultaneously

In half-duplex, the communication channel is used in both directions but only in one direction at a time. The half-duplex line can send and receive data, Eg: Gmail.

      Full Duplex:                A      --------à-----------
----------ß----------      B
                             Transmission in both direction simultaneously
In full duplex, the communication channel is used in both directions at the same time. That means the transfer of data can take place simultaneously.

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